A systematic review has evaluated the efficacy of acupuncture for nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children. A standardised data extraction form was used to evaluate outcome measures and scrutinise the quality of 13 clinical trials, which were judged to have adequately reported on treatment parameters and outcome measures. All but one study reported the efficacy rate of acupuncture as part of a TCM package to be higher than alarm therapy, the gold standard Western medicine intervention for NE. The authors also found that electro-acupuncture enhances treatment outcomes, and that acupuncture alone appears to be less effective than acupuncture given as part of a combined TCM approach. They note that acupuncture can influence spinal micturition centers and parasympathetic innervation of the urinary tract. (Acupuncture as a treatment for nocturnal enuresis. Auton Neurosci. 2010 Oct 28;157(1-2):63-7).