Electro-acupuncture (EA) can reduce pain severity in fibromyalgia (FM) by changing the way the brain’s amygdala connects with its representation of the body, report American scientists.  Seventy-six patients with FM were randomised to receive either EA, or mock laser acupuncture (ML), twice a week for a total of eight treatments.  The EA group received low-frequency (2 Hz) EA at three pairs of acupoints: right Quchi L.I.-11 to Hegu L.I.-4, left Yanglingquan GB-34 to Sanyinjiao SP-6, and bilateral Zusanli ST-36.  Needles were also inserted at Baihui DU-20, right ear Shenmen, and left Taichong LIV-3, but no electrical current was delivered to these sites.  EA treatment was designed to generate sustained somatosensory afferent activity, while ML was designed to avoid this activity.  Fibromyalgia patients who received EA experienced a greater reduction in pain severity compared to patients who received ML.  Participants receiving EA treatment also exhibited resting functional connectivity between the primary somatosensory cortical representation of the leg (S1leg) and the anterior insula, which was associated with both reduced levels of pain severity and increased levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the anterior insula.  The authors conclude that the somatosensory component of acupuncture modulates functional connectivity and inhibitory neurochemistry in the somatosensory-insular circuit resulting in reduced clinical pain severity in FM patients.  (Greater Somatosensory Afference With Acupuncture Increases Primary Somatosensory Connectivity and Alleviates Fibromyalgia Pain via Insular y-Aminobutyric Acid: A randomized Neuroimaging Trial. Arthritis Rheumatol.2021 Jul;73(7):1318-1328).